B is the requirement. In this relationship what is
In this context, I'm describing academic courses where
B is a course that fulfills the requirements for course
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At my university (in the United States Midwest), one would say "ECE 700 (A) is a follow-on course to ECE 600 (B)" and while this implies that B is a prerequisite, it doesn't necessarily require it.
(In my department at least, prerequisites were pretty flexible: transfer students, grad students, and students from other departments---as well as those just plain motivated---could very easily get them waived, so avoiding the suggestion of strict requirements was usually intended.)
B is a prerequisite of A. That is common terminology for students registering for classes.