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Why do people say “Why don’t you not?” — what is meant by that? It seems especially to be a Dublin thing.

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Welcome to ELU. I've added a "What does that mean?" part because there is no answer to why anyone would say it. Even now I suspect that the answer is something like "That's part of the Irish dialect of English, and simply means Why don't you [do that]?" – Andrew Leach Jun 14 '13 at 14:44
Can you give more context? There are potentially lots of situations where that could be said; we don't know what exactly troubles you about it. – Mitch Jun 14 '13 at 14:48

I'm not Irish, but I would understand this as a (rather rude) way of telling someone not to do something that they have just suggested doing with the phrase, "Why don't I...?"

"Why don't I tell you about my wonderful holiday?"
"Why don't you not!"

I must stress that this would end the conversation (and possibly the friendship, if any!) and would be very rude.

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I'm not familiar with that dialect myself, but Raymond Hickey claims that Irish English (unlike most of the "prestige dialects" of English) uses Negative Concord.

This means that multiple negatives in a sentence meerly intensifies the negativity. So this would be a somewhat more emphatic way of saying "Why don't you?"

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I would read it, in context of just having discussed some action, as “why don’t you not [do that]?”, or, more clearly, “why don’t you do something other than that?”.

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It means why can't you do some other thing than what you/they wanted you to do.

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