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This morning I was pondering the things in the English language which have not been given a name, such as 'the Sun' or 'the Moon'. These do not seem to fall into the same category as 'the ground' or 'the sky' which seem a lot more spatially vague. In cases where an implicit place is referred to, for example: 'we went to the ocean', the thing also has a specific name.

Is there a reason why English has not given a name to the Sun or Moon? Other languages seem to have gone to the effort to name the big fiery thing in the sky, for example: Sol, Helios, Güneş.

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I think that 'the sun' counts as a name. There's only one; we refer to other giant, bright balls of hydrogen as 'stars'. In fact, you capitalize Sun if you're referring to it in an astronomical context. –  Nathan G. Feb 6 '11 at 20:12
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@Nathan - I agree, there are lots of stars, but we gave this one a name, the Sun. There are also lots of moons around lots of planets, but this is the Moon. –  ukayer Feb 6 '11 at 20:17
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@Nathan - yes... but English predates this sort of astronomical view. –  dave Feb 6 '11 at 20:34
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Sigh. Doesn't anyone at EL&U read sci-fi? In which it's standard practice to call our sun Sol or at least something else other than the Sun. Mind you, now I think on it, I don't know any special proper noun in sci-fi distinguishing our moon from Ganymede, Phoebe, Io, etc. –  FumbleFingers Jul 9 '11 at 2:53
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@FumbleFingers Earth's moon is most often called Luna in sci-fi. –  Lawton Jun 15 '12 at 0:18
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Posted as answer, as requested:

I think that 'the sun' counts as a name. There's only one; we refer to other giant, bright balls of hydrogen as 'stars'. In fact, you capitalize Sun if you're referring to it in an astronomical context

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Not quite: 'the Sun' is a name, but future colonists may refer to the sun of their world (see what I did there?) as 'the Sun' while meaning what we call Alpha Centauri. Similarly, people across the world refer to 'the Civil War'; they don't all refer to the same event, but a distinguisher is only needed if more than one is referred to. –  TimLymington Jun 11 '11 at 17:21
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For the reasons mentioned by @TimLymington, science fiction frequently uses "Sol" to refer specifically to star that is home to Earth. Technically, that name could also be applied by anybody to their own star too for similar reasons, but not in (current) English, so that is sufficent to differentiate. SF writers also tend to use "Terra" for Earth for a similar reason, although admittedly people would be less likely to call their non-Terra planet "Earth", than they are to call their non-Sol star "the Sun". –  Kevin Cathcart Sep 21 '11 at 14:23
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Your question contains an implicit assumption which is unfounded: the words sol in Latin, helios in Greek, and güneş simply mean "sun". They are names for the sun in exactly the same way that the English word is the name for the sun. If you doubt this, consider the following: is there some generic word for "sun" in either Latin or Greek that contrasts with the proper names sol/helios? (I don't know Turkish, so I won't comment on güneş.)

In other words, we do have names for the big bright light that appears during the day, and the smaller, waxing and waning disk that appears at night. Those names are "sun" and "moon". Other burning balls of hydrogen are called "stars", and satellites orbiting other planets may be "moons", but they're not the moon.

(HT: Nathan, who gave the correct answer in a comment.)

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Fair point. I do not know Latin or Greek so appreciate the feedback of those that do. I do know some Turkish but, since it lacks articles, it is hard to make a direct comparison with English. –  dave Feb 6 '11 at 23:19
    
Continuing from above comment... I found it interesting if that if you were typing into your car's GPS, very few addresses start with 'The': The Sun, The moon, The Milky Way. It is probably significant that these all culturally unique and important. –  dave Feb 6 '11 at 23:26
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@dave: I just wonder what you find lacking in the names "the sun" and "the moon". What about them is not name-like? There isn't only one ocean; you can say "the ocean" if a mutually understood reference has been established in discourse (just like any common noun), but that is not like "the sun". Since there are many oceans, you can also say "I'd like to live near an ocean". You can't say "I'd like to live in a place where a sun shines every day". –  Kosmonaut Feb 6 '11 at 23:33
    
I agree that 'the sun' is a name. It's a nice name, short and to the point. I just found it interesting that something of such importance wouldn't be given a flashier name. To me, it's like calling your child 'the child' - there are lots of other children out there but context indicates that you are referring to your own child. –  dave Feb 6 '11 at 23:50
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@dave: Naming your kid "the boy" would be different in two major ways. One, people never have "the" in front of their name, and two, there are billions of boys and girls, so naming your child "the boy" would be extremely impersonal. But there is only one sun and one moon — and before space exploration, stars weren't even thought to be the same thing. There are thousands of proper names with "the" at the beginning, like "The United States", "The Beatles", "The Shining", etc. I really think you see the other languages' words as more "name-like" because they aren't your first language. –  Kosmonaut Feb 7 '11 at 14:48
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"The sun" is its name in English, just like "Sola"/"Solen" (definite form of "sol") is its name in Norwegian. While "sun" may refer to the hydrogen fusion ball in the sky or its light, just like "sol" does in Norwegian. A name with "the" or a definite article doesn't make it less a name. If a name for something is in a definite form (i.e. "the" in english), it usually implies it's the only one.

For instance "united states" could be any union of states, while "The United States" is almost definitely a short form of "The United States of America" aka. "USA".

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