I am trying to find a document that explains pronunciation differences en /E/ and /I/ sounds between UK and US styles. I think US pronunciation does a lot /'sɛmay/ than UK /'sɛmi/. Where can I find an explaining document for this difference?
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Maybe my 3-year residence in England 35 years ago influenced my American accent, but I use both forms of pronouncing "semi". When using it as a spoken abbreviation for "semi-trailer" I say "sem eye". For "semicircle" I say "sem ee". And some other times I say "sem eye circle".
I don't think there is a fixed rule. I think it is highly individualized.
Keep in mind that there is not one US accent, just like there isn't just one UK accent. They're both collections of dialects and accents. So within the US you could have regional accents where some words, like semi, are pronounced similarly to the UK, and vice versa.
If by US accent you mean the New York accent, and by UK you mean BBC English, then the US version - as per wikitionary, at least - is /sɛmaɪ/, and the UK being /'sɛmi/, as you posted
The reason why US English differs from UK English in the ways that it does is constantly disputed. There are theories that US English is actually more similar to the English used at the time of its colonisation, others argue that it adapted due to so many other languages interacting, at the beginning.
I haven't studied it in detail, but the American-British British-American Dictionary does have sections on pronunciation & dialects.
It's just an accent.
For example, some Americans pronounce Italian how I would pronounce eye talian. Also some Americans would pronounce it how I would pronounce Etalian but again these phonetics are strongly based on regional accents.
Most Americans for semi would (in my regional pronunciation) pronounce it sem eye.
When you learn a new language or dialect you have an accent due to many things which can range from the muscles in your mouth and tongue being developed and familiar with moving in a specific way, to learning new words from literature and pronouncing them how you would expect them to sound in your accent.
You can't find anything because you are looking in the wrong place.