What is a word or concept that describes a situation where one person puts forth a point of view, and another person does not directly address the position, but instead responds with an obvious, basic fact whose implications cast doubt on the correctness or strength of the point of view? This is intended to belittle the point of view.
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Counterexample: "used to argue that a certain [...] position is wrong by showing that it does not apply in certain cases".
There are some slang terms I can think of: zinger, for instance. "She hit him with a zinger." Not for very formal writing, of course. Another would be "put down," again, not formal at all. But both imply that the other speaker is right and the original speaker is wrong. "Comeback" is a third, but doesn't imply the correctness of the second speaker necessarily.