I would like to know if the word "lobby" would have been used in 1890s Georgia (United States) and to what exactly this word would have referred in that time.
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The entry for lobby in the Online Etymology Dictionary is:
So, to answer your question, yes, it could be used in 1890s Georgia to refer to seeking to influence legislation. If you mean for it to be the entrance to a public building, then it is much older than that.
The oldest still-extant sense of the noun lobby is, per the OED:
The OED’s first citation for that sense is from Shakespeare, and it continues to be used in those ways in contemporary English.
However, the extended sense of lobby seen in “the alcohol lobby” or “the anti-pollution lobby” and meaning
is a wholly modern one that arose only in the second half of the 20th century. The earliest provided citation for that sense in the OED dates from 1952 in The Economist. There are later citations from other periodicals like The Listener (which ceased publication in 1991) and The Telegraph.
Given that all citations are from periodicals, one might speculate that this is a “newsy” sort of sense. It would certainly be anachronistic coming from the mouth of someone portrayed as being from the 1890s in Georgia.
On the other hand, if you are looking for lobby as a verb, the thing we talk about when speaking of lobbying organizations and meaning either of:
Then those sorts of uses arose during the earlier half of the 19th century in the United States, and so would not necessarily seem out of place in your chosen milieu.
The US Library of Congress has made available millions of pages of newspapers in their Chronicling America archive, and it can be searched by state and decade.
One would expect newspapers to be a good source for the political meaning, however a search of Georgia newspapers between 1890 and 1899 strangely reveals no results at all. The same happens searching for news, so clearly there mustn't be any Georgian newspapers indexed between those dates.
Widening the search to include neighbouring states gives 278 results. Here's a few examples that show it used as a group to influence policy, and as a waiting room or hallway (which just so happen to be in the senate and White House).
Copied from www.parliament.uk:
The House of Commons has been around for a long time.