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For example the top of the pendant in the link below:

top of a pearl pendant

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Why did you include the word pearl in the title of your question? Do you think this would have a different name if the pendant was, say, a ruby pendant? – J.R. Mar 29 '13 at 10:48
The OP was a friend of mine and we were looking exclusively at pearls at the time. Apologies for any confusion. – merlin2011 Mar 30 '13 at 3:32

Pendant itself is the word you are looking for,

Macmillan dictionary has the following definition of pendant.

Pendant > a piece of jewelry that hangs from a chain around your neck

Note: Gems and other precious stones are the ones which get set in the top of the pendant or rings. And they are just know by their names, like oh what a diamond ring, or a beautiful sapphire necklace.

Here is what i got when googled for the pendant

Other related terms not to be confused with are :

Bail > a component of certain types of jewelry, mostly necklaces, that is used to attach a pendant or stone.,

enter image description here

Setting > what holds an individual gem,

enter image description here

Mounting > includes the collection of settings and connects to the shank of a ring or other jewelry

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@J.R., added pics to clarify what i was saying. – Raghav Mar 29 '13 at 11:20
I don't think the bail is the hook per se, it depends on the type of bail used. There are donut bails, pinch bails, glue-on bails, wire wrapped bails, etc. You can find more information here, see more than 80 bails for sale here, or watch this video to see that not all bails have hooks. – J.R. Mar 29 '13 at 17:54
@J.R., The first link you suggest is giving this information/what should we infer from it?? > A jewelry bail is a jewelry making component (findings) that attaches a pendant to a necklace, chain, cord etc. > And also, if we go through all the images in the second link provided by you, same is the result, something to hold or latch from. – Raghav Mar 29 '13 at 17:58
Raghav, here is what you said in your answer: "Bail > the hook." Here is what you said in your comment to Matthew: "it is the hook" [emphasis in the original]. Here is what you said in a comment to me: "i meant bail is actually the hook." Now, here is my point: Not all bails have hooks. – J.R. Mar 29 '13 at 18:02
@J.R., oh sorry for not being clear,and going to remove that comment, plus edit wherever was not clear enough, all i wanted was to give a quick idea but i also remember everywhere i used a reference from where i was mentioning[and in Matthew's answer the complete definition was from the source he mentioned]. Got your point though. – Raghav Mar 29 '13 at 18:07

I believe it's called a bail.

Reference: Wikipedia entry for bail.

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Bail is probably the correct technical term, but if you wanted to buy such an item (for crafting), the word you want is setting or mounting.

You can see some examples at this website.

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