I am curious to know why a numerical chart can be called a table. What is the relation to the table at which people eat?
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That kind of table comes from the Latin tabula meaning "a board or plank" which was used for writing down columns of numbers. It was also where one ate one's dinner (OE called it bord and appropriated the Latin table for that purpose, although the Romans used the term mensa for the food table). Handy, eh? You can read about it on Etymonline. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=table&searchmode=none
As reported from the NOAD, the origin of the word table is from Old English tabule (flat slab, inscribed tablet), which derives from the Latin tabula (plank, tablet, list); it has been reinforced in Middle English from the Old French table.
Table has then two different meanings that has been taken from the Latin word.