I am trying to assess errors regarding lexicology in an English-as-a-second-language-learner's spoken English. Does the use of tense fall into the 'Lexicology', Phonology, Syntax or Discourse? I need something in the lexicology area to focus on!
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"Lexicology" deals with the meaning and application of words and phrases. "Tense" would fall under the category of "grammar", which is listed under "Syntax" in many Applied Linguistics" programs. So "tense" would fall under Syntax. On the other hand, you might also try "Discourse", for often times, the studies of Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis look at verb tense use as it is applied in "talk-in-interaction".
the simple answer is it falls under lexicology which deals with the morphology of words which is what happens when we want to indicate tense.