Does the following sentence use the word "vested" correctly?
Those vested in keeping you from creating change want you to believe that change is futile.
There is no better answer than a reason given in a comment (by Edwin Ashworth) on a now-deleted answer.
Thus “those vested in” is not correct.
“Those with vested interests in” would be correct.
Yes, this use of "Vested" in the sentence...
...would be correct.
Vested (as in "vested interest", as suggested by Andrew Leach), indicates ones "passion" for doing something.