Is there a particular term for the abbreviated language used in headlines (removed of at least articles and conjunctions)?
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Mårdh (1980) refers to this type of language as "headlinese". (Mårdh, Ingrid. 1980. Headlinese: On the grammar of English front page headlines. Malmö: CWK Gleerup.) See also this Wikipedia page.
A particularly bewildering headline can be referred to as a crash blossom. This term was taken from the headline: "Violinist linked to JAL crash blossoms".