Once again, a problem encountered while marking German pupils' exams. We teach them the following rules:
A present participle can be used to shorten an active relative clause:
- The boy who was driving the car didn't stop = The boy driving the red car didn't stop
A past participle can be used to shorten a passive relative clause:
- Strawberries which are grown in California are delicious = Strawberries grown in California are delicious.
While marking, I encountered several problems. For example, why does this not work:
The girl who has black hair is in the corner
The girl having black hair is in the corner
That's the man who is happy to be here
That's the man being happy to be here
Does this all have to do with:
- the verbs have and be? (But "The girl, being happy, phoned her friend")
- the continuous and simple forms? (But "We help people who live in ghettos = we help people living in ghettos")
- the tenses?
Or what? I'm totally stumped by this problem and do not know how to explain the pupils' mistakes to them. The problem seems to occur mostly with the use of the present participle. Who can help with some explanations or even better, specific rules!