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The milk having soured, Martha drank her coffee black.

Is this sentence a run-on sentence, or is it an (grammatically) acceptable sentence?

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up vote 5 down vote accepted

A run-on sentence is one in which two or more independent clauses are joined without correct punctuation or without the use of a conjunction.

The sentence in the example is not a run-on sentence. It has only one independent clause. The milk having soured is an introductory participial phrase and is correctly followed by a comma.

Here's an example of a run-on sentence with two independent clauses:

The milk had soured, Martha had her coffee black.

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