If my friend went to somewhere on weekend but i didn't know where did he go? And if i want to ask him like "Where are you going?" on Monday which sentences should i ask him?
Where did you go?
Where have you gone?
Where had you gone?
closed as general reference by Kris, Urbycoz, Kristina Lopez, Bill Franke, MετάEd Feb 12 '13 at 15:45
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You use the interrogative form of the past tense – ‘Where did you go?’ – because you are referring to a past event that occurred at a particular time and which is now complete.
If you are surprised by the person being away (and you expected them to be home doing housework, for example) you could ask:
I'm up-voting Barrie's answer, which certainly is correct. This is more to cover the question in the comments as to when you might use the others.
First, as Barrie said, the most normal way of asking about a past event, is the simple past:
A response in the simple past might be:
The present perfect is used to refer to a past event that has consequences in the present. So if you were out with your friend, and then couldn't see them, you might phone them and ask:
They've gone somewhere, and that is still affecting things now.
You wouldn't normally use it in response (more likely would be the simple past to indicate where they went, or the simple present to indicate where they are). You might though use go in the present perfect if you left a note:
The past perfect is used when we're already talking about the past, and want to talk about something that happened further in the past that had an effect on that point. So you would need a context that was already in the past:
The context is the past point when they met Alice, and the question is about something further in the past that was in effect at that point.
The response could quite likely be in the past perfect too:
It could also be in the simple past, changing the point in the past that is the context of what is spoken about.