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If I am referring to one thing, but multiple people, is it "is this _ one of yours?" or "one of you all's"?

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You all is a regionalism. It should be avoided in formal English. – dnagirl Feb 1 '13 at 18:33
Does this belong to any of you? 

would be how I would phrase the question. Though some dialects of English commonly use you alls or even all y'all for second person plural, it is not standard usage.

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I don't know where you're from, but in the US, no one uses 'you alls' and I've only heard that some Texans say "all y'all", but I can only imagine that that is for emphasis, and that "y'all" is easily used there for 2nd person plural. – Mitch Feb 1 '13 at 18:53

If you must use either of your two examples, use the first:

Is this table one of yours?

The problem is ambiguity: are you asking whether this table belongs to "one of you," or whether this table is one of several that belong to "you"? Presumably it would be obvious from the context.

It would be better by far to avoid that construction altogether and say,

Does this table belong to one of you?

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  1. "You all" is generally not considered appropriate for formal English. "You" is both singular and plural. In spoken English, particularly in the southern U.S., "you all" is often used as the plural of "you".

  2. The number of things owned and the number of people owning have nothing to do with each other, and each should be made singular or plural as necessary.

"his book": one person owns one book

"his books": one person owns many books

"their book": many people own one book

"their books" many people own many books

Side note: It's too bad that "yall" is not the accepted plural of "you", it could eliminate ambiguity. I am reminded of a book on language I read once where the author commented that when he was in college, he asked his girlfriend to go away with him for the weekend. But at the time he asked she was with a group of her friends, and when he said "you" they thought he meant you-plural, and that he was inviting the whole gang to go on a trip. Caught in an awkward social moment he felt he couldn't clarify his meaning, so what he had intended to be a romantic getaway for two instead became a road trip with a bunch of strangers. He said he considered that an "unacceptable ambiguity".

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