This question is not actually about whether you should use acquaint or acquainting. That is a side-effect of the preposition/particle which follows attempts.
Attempts can be followed by at (and a gerund) if attempts is a noun. Note that it can also use to and the infinitive form of the verb.
I made several attempts at doing that.
If attempts is a verb, it must be followed by to and an infinitive.
It attempts to do that.
The question is testing how the parts of the sentence are parsed. Here, attempts is a verb and must be followed by to and an infinitive.
If the sentence is lengthened, then attempts can be made into a noun, but an additional comma helps:
The research study is an eye-opener, and attempts at acquainting us with the problems of poor nations are ultimately successful.